Hammer Toe

What Is A Hammer Toe?

A hammer toe, or claw toe, describes a condition where the toe(s) become buckled, contracted or crooked. The toe could even cross over an adjacent toe, which is called a cross over toe. Any of the toes may be affected, but the 2nd and 5th toe are most commonly involved.

Symptoms Of Hammer Toes

Patients with hammer toe(s) may develop pain on the top of the toe(s), tip of the toe, and/or on the ball of the foot. Excessive pressure from shoes may result in the formation of a hardened portion of skin (corn or callus) on the knuckle and/or ball of the foot. Some people may not recognize that they have a hammer toe, rather they identity the excess skin build-up of a corn.

The toe(s) may become irritated, red, warm, and/or swollen. The pain may be dull and mild or severe and sharp. Pain is often made worse by shoes, especially shoes that crowd the toes. While some hammer toes may result in significant pain, others may not be painful at all. Painful toes can prevent you from wearing stylish shoes.

Causes Of Hammer Toes

Hereditary and shoe gear are probably the most likely reasons to develop a hammer toe. Tight pointy shoes may cause a hammer toes. High heels also can cause hammer toes. A deformed toe often develops over time, and certain types of feet may be predisposed. Some patients may develop a hammer toe or cross over toe (of the 2nd toe) due to a bunion of the big toe.

When to Seek Hammer Toe Treatment

Common reasons patients seek treatment for toe problems are:

  • Toe pain on the knuckle
  • Thick toe calluses
  • Interference with walking/activities
  • Difficulty fitting shoes
  • Worsening toe deformity
  • Pain at the ball of the foot
  • Unsightly appearance

Toe deformities (contractures) come in varying degrees of severity – from slight to severe. The can be present in conjunction with a bunion, and develop onto a severe disfiguring foot deformity. Advanced cases, the toe can dislocate on top of the foot. Depending on your overall health, symptoms and severity of the hammer toe, the condition may be treated conservatively and/or with surgery.

Non-operative Treatments for Hammer Toes

Non-surgical methods for hammer toes (claw toes) are aimed at decreasing symptoms (i.e., pain and/or calluses) and/or limiting the progression into a larger problem.

Simple treatments patients can do are:

  • Wear supportive shoes
  • Use an arch support
  • Wear shoes with a wide toe box
  • Modify activities
  • Spot stretch shoes
  • Periodic callus care

Non-surgical treatments Dr. Blitz can add:

  • Anti-inflammatory Medicines: Prescription strength medicines to decrease pain and inflammation.
  • Physical Therapy: To strengthen poorly functioning muscles and stretch tight muscles that may be exacerbating the toes. Special ultrasound techniques may reduce inflammation.
  • Custom Foot Orthotics: Dr. Blitz creates an orthotic with an exact mold of your foot to better align and support the foot to ease current discomfort and prevent future progression.
  • Toe Splints or Pads: Specific pads may prevent pressure and physical irritation in shoes. Toe splints and toe spacers physically realign the toes and can lessen pain and halt or stall hammer toe progression.
  • Injections: Cortisone injections are strong anti-inflammatory agents to decrease pain, and swelling directly at the toe region. Injections only treat the symptoms, and in some cases used in caution (and sparingly) they can weaken supporting ligaments of the toe(s).

Hammer Toe Surgery (Toe Shortening, Toe Job, Toe Augmentation)

Toes can be surgically realigned and made straight again. They can even be made shorter. The good news is that toes can be corrected. Hammer toe surgery is often synonymous with “toe shortening”, “toe job” and/or “toe augmentation”. Depending on the severity and length of the toe, there are several methods to surgically correct a hammer toe. In general, the surgery involves removing a portion of the bone at the contracted joint, to realign the toe.

How Are Hammer Toes Surgically Corrected?

The basis for hammer toe surgery most often involves removing s portion of bone within the toe, to reduce the joint contracture. Depending on the direction the toe is deviated, soft tissue procedures may be necessary along with pinning the toe with a surgical wire.

There are generally two methods surgeons use to correct hammer toes – they are joint resection (arthroplasty) or bone mending (fusion), and the location where this is performed on the toe depends on where the toe is buckled. Its important to recognize that most of the surgical work involved the joints of the toe, not the joint of the ball of the foot. Sometimes a toe relocation procedure is needed when the joint of the ball of the foot is malaligned (subluxed or dislocated).

  • Joint resection procedures involves removing part of one of the two small joints of the toe directly underneath where the digit is crooked. The purpose is to make room for the toe to be re-positioned flat or straight. Because hammer toes become rigid or fixed with time, removing the joint becomes the only option when the knuckle is stiff. Its important to understand that this procedure does not involve the joint of the ball of the foot, rather the a small joint of the toe. Medical terminology for this procedure is called a proximal interphalangeal joint arthroplasty or a distal interphalangeal joint arthroplasty, with the latter involving the joint closer to the tip of the toe.
  • Bone-mending procedures realign the contracted toe by removing the entire deviated small joints of the toe (again, not at the ball of the foot). This allows for the buckled joint to be positioned flat and the bone ends to mend together. Often surgical hardware (fixation) is necessary to keep the bones steady during healing. Hardware options can involve a buried implant inside the toe, or a temporary wire that is removed at a later date. Medical terminology for this procedure is called a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis (fusion), or a distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis (fusion), with the former being performed in a high majority of cases.
  • Toe Relocation procedures are ancillary procedures that are performed in conjunction with one of the two methods listed about (joint resection or joint mending). When the toe is deformed (buckled) at the ball of the foot, then this joint often needs to be re-positioned along with ligament releases/repair to get the toe straight. A temporary surgical rod is needed to hold the toe aligned while the ligaments mend.

Hammer Toe Surgery Recovery

Recovery after hammer toe surgery generally depends on the method of surgery performed. In all cases, healing takes about 6 weeks in healthy people and there is no way to speed up that process. Patients often return to normal activities and shoe gear by 2 weeks to 3 months depending on just how severe the toe deformity was preoperatively. Simple toe surgery can recover very quickly, and return to a shoe in two weeks – especially with the 5th toe (the 2nd toe is trickier as people push-off of this toe). Factors that may prolong healing are age, smoking, poor nutritional status, and some medical problems.

Walking After Hammer Toe Surgery

Walking after hammer toe surgery is strongly dependent on the method (procedure) surgeons choose to correct the toe and the techniques used to stabilize the digit while mending. Also, the ability to mobilize quicker depends on which toe was operated on. In general, the 4th and 5th toe allows for a quicker return to shoes, as these toes are not needed for propulsion. The 2nd toe, however, is the most commonly deformed toe and tends to have more severe problems, requiring more surgical work.

Nearly all of Dr. Blitz’ patients are walking immediately after hammer toe surgery in a stiff soled surgical shoe. Sometimes, patients may have the bunion repaired at the same surgical setting, and that may dictate whether or not walking would be allowed. Because of Dr. Blitz’ advanced Bunionplasty® techniques he is able to weightbear a very larger majority of the bunions (regardless of severity) – so having hammer toe surgery doesn’t change that variable in his patients.

Laser Hammer Toe Surgery

Laser surgery is popular for cosmetic procedures, however, for hammer toe surgery it does not offer any advantage to traditional methods. Laser is useful for soft tissues (not bone), and because hammer toe surgery involves bone procedures, it is not effective. For cosmetic hammer toe surgery, patients should look for surgeons experienced in aesthetic foot surgery.

What Anesthesia Is Needed For Hammer Toe Surgery

Hammer toe surgery is performed as outpatient surgery (this means you go home the same day). It may be performed in a hospital, ambulatory surgery center and even in the doctors office (so long as the facility is set up for surgery).

The surgery can be performed under a local, regional, spinal or general anesthetic. Local and regional blocks, with monitored anesthesia care are most commonly performed. This means that the foot will be numbed with an anesthetic while an anesthesiologist provides sedation to relax you.

Is Hardware Implanted Into The Foot With Hammer toe Surgery?

The use of surgical hardware for hammer toe surgery is very common, and depends on the severity of the hammer toe and which toe is operated on. The 5th toe rarely requires surgical hardware, while the 2nd toe almost always does. Surgical hardware may involve stainless steel wires, screws, synthetic material, absorbable pins, cadaveric bone, and/or specialty fixation devices.

A temporary stainless steel rod is most commonly used to hold the bones steady. The rod (medically known as a K-wire) will stick out the tip of the toe and removed in the office once healed – 2 -6 weeks later. Removing of the rod is doesn’t elicit pain usually, rather just an uncomfortable feeling. Sometimes a metal fusion device (for bone mending procedures) is buried within the bone and doesn’t need to be removed, thought this type of implant is not ideal when toe relocation surgery is necessary.

Surgically imbedded hardware within the toe can remain in your foot permanently. Due to the nature of the implant removing the hardware would undo the surgery that was performed, therefore elective removal is not performed. Use of the rod in contrast, avoid permanent metallic implants within the toe.

Corns And Hammer Toes: Will Hammer Toe Surgery Also Remove The Corns On The Top Of The Toe?

When corns (dried skin buildup) is present along with a hammer toe, indicates that the buckled toe is rubbing against the shoe. The term corn is typically reserved for the skin buildup located on the top of the toes. In general, correcting the toe problem will also correct the corn/callus buildup. In most cases, Dr. Blitz excised the corns are part of the incision approach for a better cosmetic appearance of the foot after toe surgery.

Calluses And Hammer Toes: Will Hammer Toe Surgery Also Remove The Calluses On The Ball Of The Foot?

Calluses on the ball of the foot (bottom) are more involved than corns on the top of the toe. Calluses also represent a pressure distribution problem of the front of the foot. They are often related to the hammer toe itself as the buckled toe causes increased pressure on the bone of the ball of the foot (called metatarsals). In this case, correcting the hammer toe can alleviate the excess pressure, and in turn alleviate the callus. Calluses with a core (medically called nucleated calluses or intratractable plantar keratosis) are more complex and may require specific surgery on the metatarsal bone.

What Are The Risks Of Hammer Toe Surgery

There are general risks associated with hammer toe surgery (or any surgery) and the use of anesthesia. Complications may occur and are not necessarily your fault, or the fault of your surgeon. Nonetheless, you should understand the risks.

Hammer toe surgery complications include, but are not limited to: infection, pain (temporary or permanent), swelling, hematoma, bleeding, blood clot, poor wound healing, incision breakdown, poor bone healing (delayed union, nonunion), malunion, nerve injury, disability, recurrence, flail toe, new toe deformity, metatarsalgia, unsightly scar, stiffness, shortness of toe, weakness in toe, loss of toe to purchase ground, hardware problems, need for revisional surgery, and/or catastrophic loss.

Why Choose Dr. Blitz As Your Hammer Toe Surgeon?

  • Overall Experience: Dr. Blitz has over 12 years of major experience in the field. He is considered an international expert in bunion surgery.
  • Board Certification: Dr. Blitz is Board Certified in Foot Surgery and Reconstructive Foot Surgery by the American Board of Podiatric Medicine (ABPS).
  • Peer-reviewed and General Publications: Over that past decade Dr. Blitz has published dozens of articles, case reports, and letters in scientific journals on a variety of topics. Dr. Blitz has published in the Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery, Achieves of Plastic Surgery, Clinics in Podiatric Medicine & Surgery, Podiatry Today, Huffington Post and the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine.
  • Lecturer: Dr. Blitz has a solid history of lecturing on hammer toe surgery.
  • Innovator: Dr. Blitz is an innovator for hammer toe surgery as he has performed research on hammer toes and has published a technique article on the subject in a medical journal.
  • Internet Research: A simple method to learn about your surgeons professional activates outside of his/her website.
  • Patient Feedback: Please visit Dr. Blitz’s Patient Comments page, or his Facebook page.
  • In The News: Dr. Blitz has been on various media outlets as an expert in foot surgery.

Home Preparation Tips For Hammer Toe Surgery

For the best possible outcome, Dr. Blitz strongly encourages his hammer toe surgery patients to prepare the home and arrange your support system. Some things that may be helpful are:

  • Stock the refrigerator and pantry.
  • Cook some meals in advance to get you trough the first few days.
  • Obtain ice packs and place them in the freezer.
    • Do not use ice in a plastic bag as this can leak and get your bandages wet.
    • Dr. Blitz recommends that you purchase either:
  • Place commonly used items in easy to reach places.
  • Practice with crutches (if you will need them).
  • Have extra-pillows to elevate your limb after surgery.
  • Have your phone near your bed and/or couch.
  • Use the bathroom before going to sleep.
  • Purchase a shower protector to keep your bandages dry.
    • Dr. Blitz recommends the Xerosox, which can be purchased from his e-store by clicking here.
  • Arrange your furniture to allow for easy passage.
  • Program your Surgeons phone # in your phone in case of emergency.
  • Start nutritional supplementation to support the healing process with Surgery Vitamin™ Products. Surgery Vitamin is taken 2 weeks before surgery and 2 weeks after, so give yourself enough time to obtain the products. Surgery Vitamin could be purchased online at www.surgeryvitamin.com
  • Purchase elastic compressive dressing to wrap the foot postoperatively as Dr. Blitz instructs to keep the swelling to a minimum.
    • Buy 2 rolls of 4” Coban Wrap from Dr. Blitz e-store: click here
  • Get your pain medicine prescription filled before the day of surgery.

What Is Toe Shortening?

Toe shortening is a surgical procedure to simply shorten a long toe – mainly for the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th toe. Most commonly the 2nd toe is longer than the surrounding toes. A person can have a long 2nd toe without it being buckled (aka hammer toe).

Toe shortening is not particularly performed

Dr. Blitz is the creator of the term “Bunionplasty®”. A Bunionplasty® is a cosmetic (or aesthetic) approach to bunion surgery where special plastic surgery techniques are




Dislocated Toe

has classically been centered on the method with which surgeons use to realign the deviated bones. Bunionplasty (cosmetic bunionectomy) refers to the method with which the skin is handled (or managed) to limit scarring for a more aesthetic result.

While hundreds of bunion surgery operations have been described, surgeons generally correct bunions using one of two methods to realign the malaligned bones – they are bone cut (osteotomy) or bone mending (fusion).

  • Bone-cutting procedures involve creating a surgical ‘break’ (medically called an osteotomy) in the deviated metatarsal bone to realign only a portion of the bone. A variety of shaped cuts can be performed to treat varying sizes of bunions. Common surgical names for these procedures are Austin Bunionectomy, Scarf Bunionectomy, or Base Wedge Osteotomy. Dr. Blitz believes bone-cutting procedures are best for small or mild bunions.
  • Bone-mending procedures realign the entire deviated bone at the root of the problem, where the deviation originates. The name of this procedure is called the Lapidus Bunionectomy. Dr. Blitz typically recommends the Lapidus procedure for patients with moderate, large, severe or recurrent bunions.